When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the Levitical priests.In the Hebrew Bible, the title is taken from the first words of the book:
These are the words Moses spoke to all Israel in the wilderness east of the Jordan—that is, in the Arabah—opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and DizahabDeuteronomy introduces no new material that has not been presented in previousl books. It re-presents and inculcates the covenant between God and Israel. It consists of four speeches given by Moses:
Chapters 27 & 28
Chapters 29 & 30
The speeches are set Plains of Moab, at which Israel had arrived after 40 years of wandering in the Wilderness.
The Book is both retrospective and prospective. It is retrospective in that it recounts recent events for Israel and prospective in that Moses speaks of entering the Promised Land and what will happen once they enter.
It is similar in structure to other treaties between Ancient Near Eastern Traditions
~The Hittite Vassal Treaty
~Assyrian Vassal Treaties
These treaties, and Deuteronomy, have at least 7 elements:
1. A Preamble announcing the treaty and the parties thereto (Deut 1-5)
2. A Historical Prologue citing past relations between the parties (Deut 1:6 - 4:49)
3. General Stipulations (Deut 5-11)
4. Specific Stipulations (Deut 12-26)
5. Deposition of Documents for Display (Deut 27:1-10)
6. Witnesses (Deut 32)
7. Blessings and Curses (Deut 27 & 28)
In Deuteronomy we have Moses making a series of speeches to remind Israel of the Covenant.
It can be compared to a "legally binding contract" in that it has all f the elements of such a contract:
~An Offer (which God made to Israel)
~Acceptance of the Offer (by Israel)
~A consideration---something of value exchanged between the parties.
Moses reiterates the considerations gien by both parties.
God offers his "Shalom"--his "Peace", Israels's part of the bargain is Obedience
We are revisiting all of these elements in Moses' speeches. The first speech is found in chapters 3 & 4.
Deuteronomy 3:23-26 illustrates that Obedience is part of the bargain, and he will hold Moses to it:
This is the price paid for Moses' disobedience when he struck the rock rather than speak to it.
As does 4:1-4:
And 4:32-39 describes the offer and consideration from God:
Moses' second speech is in Chapter 5 and recounts the 10 Commandments
In Chapter 6, we see the first example of Moses stating the Covenant and Shalom
6:4-9 is The Shema, the central prayer in the Jewish prayer book, where Moses describes to Israel their consideration part of the Covenant
6:10-19 goes from God's consideration (his shalom) and back to Israel's part:
Chapter 7:1-2 give a command to Israel regarding the inhabitants of the land they are about to possess:
This is known as "The Ban" or "Cherem"
The "ban" (Heb. cherem) refers to God's command to the Israelites to exterminate 7 tribes living in the land of Canaan (Deut. 7:1,2).There are several moral problems raised by the "ban." The Christian worker should be able to defend this area of biblical revelation (1 Pet. 3:15).Equally important is Verse 3 in Chapter 7
Do not intermarry with them. Do not give your daughters to their sons or take their daughters for your sons,This verse has been used incorrectly by persons using it as looking to prevent the intermarriage of races. It must be remembered that God is talking here of sinners of immense proportions who are idol worshippers. The command is to the Israelites not to marry outside the faith. This is a result of the incident at Peor described in Numbers 25 and Numbers 31. The command is repeated in 2Corinthains 6:14.
Verse 7:12 is another reminder of the Covenant:
If you pay attention to these laws and are careful to follow them, then the your God will keep his covenant of love with you, as he swore to your ancestors.And again 7:3-16 goes back and forth between Shalom and Obedience
The command in 7:25-26 will be part of a test question:
Chapter 8, Verses 11 & 12 should inform or lives today:
As well as 9:4:
After the your God has driven them out before you, do not say to yourself, “The has brought me here to take possession of this land because of my righteousness.” No, it is on account of the wickedness of these nations that the is going to drive them out before you.Verse 10:12-13 discusses the difference between the Law and the Spirit of The Law
A foreshadowing of the message in Matthew 5:
In Chapter 11, we see again the refrain of Covenant and Shalom:
In Verse 26 is the Doctrine of The Two Ways, one can choose a Blessing or a Curse:
Chapter 17 contains an indictment on the political process:
Chapter 20 contains some practical advice on waging war:
Chapter 24 Verses 19-22 are a reminder of Leviticus 19:
Chapter 24 Verse 4 has relevance later in the New Testament:
Do not muzzle an ox while it is treading out the grain.(personal research finds that it is noted twice in the NT in reference to providing for Ministers Matthew Henry notes:
This instance of the beast that trod out the corn (to which there is an allusion in that of the prophet, Hos. 10:11 ) is put for all similar instances. That which makes this law very remarkable above its fellows (and which countenances the like application of other such laws) is that it is twice quoted in the New Testament to show that it is the duty of the people to give their ministers a comfortable maintenance,1 Co. 9:9, 1 Co. 9:10 , and 1 Tim. 5:17, 1 Tim. 5:18 . It teaches us in the letter of it to make much of the brute-creatures that serve us, and to allow them not only the necessary supports for their life, but the advantages of their labour; and thus we must learn not only to be just, but kind, to all that are employed for our good, not only to maintain but to encourage them, especially those that labour among us in the word and doctrine, and so are employed for the good of our better part. )We would do well to read Chapter 26 regarding First Fruits and Tithing.
Moses' final speech is found in Chapter 28 and outlines the Blessings and Curses touched on in 11:26.
28:1-14 lists Blessings and 28:15-48 lists Curses.
Take note that there are 14 verses of blessings and about a page and a half of Curses.
Verses 49-57 and 64-68 contains Prophesy of things to come when Israel turns away from God.
Moses is doing his best to convince Israel to hold up their end of the bargain.
Chapter 31 Verses 19-29 shows that even though the Curses were a page and a half long, and even though Moses did his very best to convince Israel, it was known that they were a stiff necked people and would eventually rebel
But god was giving them a chance.
Modern Scholarship holds that Deuteronomy was written during the Josianic Reformation, during the reign of King Josiah outlined in 2 Kings 22
As such, it is a book of reform, to help reform and remind Israel of the Covenant.
Here are Roxie's notes: